Footnotes

 

 
 
  1. Arnoldi, C. C. ; Brodsky, A. E.; Cauchoix, J. ; Crock, H.V. ; Dommisse, G. F.; Edgar, M. A. ; Gargano, F. P.; Jacobson, R. E.; Kirkaldy-Willis, W. H.; Kurihara, A.; Langenskiold, A; Macnab, I; McIvor, G. W. D.; Newman, P. H..; Paine,K. W. W.; Russin, L. A.; Sheldon, J.; Tile, M.; Urist, M.R.; Wilson, W.E. and Wiltse, L.L.: 'Lumbar Spinal Stenosis and Nerve Root Entrapment Syndromes. Definition and Classification.' 1976 Clin Orthop., 115: 4-5.
  2. Andersson, GBJ, McNiell, TW. 'Definition and Classification of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis'. In: Andersson, GBJ, McNeill, TW, editors 'Lumbar Spinal Stenosis' 1991, PP 11.
  3. Andersson, GBJ, McNiell, TW. 'History and Physical Examination in Spinal Stenosis'. In: Andersson, GBJ, McNeill, TW, editors 'Lumbar Spinal Stenosis' 1991, PP 227.
  4. Verbiest, H. 'Neurogenic intermittent claudication. With special reference to stenosis of the lumbar vertebral canal.' New York, North Holland/American Elsevier, 1976.
  5. Mooney, V. 'Differential Diagnosis of Low Back Disorders. Principles of classification.' In: J.W. Frymore, editor in chief. Raven Press, Lt.d, New York 'The Adult Spine,' 1991; pp. 1559-60.
  6. Sachs, B, Fraenkel, J. 'Progressive ankylotic rigidity of the spine (spondylose rhizom'lique). J Nerv Ment Dis 1900; 27: 1-15.
  7. Turner, JA, Ersek, M, Herron, L, Deyo, R. 'Surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis: Attempted meta-analysis of the literature.' Spine 1992; 17:1-8.
  8. Postacchini, F. 'Management of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis.' J Bone Joint Surg 1996; 78-B:154-64.
  9. Selby, DK. 'Conservative care of the lumbar spine in the elderly.' Geriatrics 1983; 38 (12): 42-56.
  10. Weisel, SW, Cuckerl, JM, Deluca, F, et al. 'Acute low back pain – an objective analysis of conservative therapy.' Spine 1980; 5: 324-30.
  11. Nagler, W, Hausen, HS. 'Conservative management of lumbar spinal stenosis. Identifying patients likely to do well without surgery.' Postgraduate Medicine 1998; 103 (4): 69-88.
  12. Zdeblick, TA. 'The treatment of degenerative lumbar disorders: a critical review of the literature.' Spine 1995: 20 Suppl: 126S-137S.
  13. Bridwell, KH. 'Lumbar spinal stenosis. Diagnosis, management, and treatment.' Clin Geriatr Med 1994; 10: 677-701.
  14. Jaffe, G. 'A double blind multi-center comparison of naproxen and indomethacin in acute musculoskeletal disorders.' Curr Med Res Opin 1976; 4: 373-80.
  15. Vignon, G. 'Comparative study of intravenous ketoprofen versus aspirin.' Rheumatol Rehabil 1976; 15: 83-4.
  16. Amlie, E, Weber, H, Home, I. 'Treatment of acute low back pain with piroxicam: Results of a double-blind placebo-controlled trial.' Spine 1987; 12: 473-6.
  17. Hoogmartens, M, Morelle, P. 'Epidural injections in the treatment of spinal stenosis.' Acta Orthop Belg 1987; 53: 409-11.
  18. Rosen, CD, Kahanovitz, N, Bernstein, R, Viola, K. 'A retrospective analysis of the efficacy of epidural steriod injections.' Clin Orthop 1988; 228:270-2.
  19. Bigos, S, Bower, O, Braen, G, Brown, KC, Deyo, RA, Haldeman, S, et al. 'Acute low back problems in adults.' Clinical Practice Guideline No. 14 AHCPR Publication No. 95-0642. Rockville (MD): Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Public Health Services, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; December 1994.
  20. Rydevik, B, Cohen, DB, Kostuik. 'Spine epidural steroids for patients with lumbar spinal stenosis.' Spine 1997; 22: 2313-7.
  21. Frtiz, JM, Delitto, A, Welch, WC, Erhard, RE. 'Lumbar spinal stenosis: A review of current concepts in evaluation, management, and outcomes measurements.' Arch Phys Rehabil 1998; 79: 700-8.
  22. Grabias, S. 'Current concepts review: The treatment of spinal stenosis.' J Bone Joint Surg 1980; 62A:308-13.
  23. Spengler, DM. 'Current concepts review: Degenerative stenosis of the lumbar spine.' J Bone Joint Surg 1987; 69A 305-8.
  24. Graves, EJ. 'National Hospital Discharge Survey' Vital Health Stat 1989; 13 (100).
  25. Taylor, VM, Deyo, RA, Cherkin, DC, Kreuter, W. 'Low back pain hospitalizations: Recent United States trends and regional variations.' Spine 1994; 19: 1207-13.
  26. Volinn, E, Mayer, J, Diehr, P, et al. 'Small area analysis of surgery for low back pain.' Spine 1992; 17:575-81.
  27. Deyo, RA, Cherkin, D, Conrad, D, Volinn, E. 'Cost, controversy, crisis: Low back pain and the health of the public.: Ann Review of Public Health 1991; 12:141-56.
  28. Katz, JN, Lipson, SJ, Brick, GW, Grobler, LJ, Weinstein, JN, Fossel, AH, Lew, RA, Lian, MH. 'Clinical correlates of patient satisfaction after laminectomy for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis.' Spine 1995; 20: 1155-1160.
  29. Katz, JN, Lipson, SJ, Larson, MG, McInnes, JM, Fossel, AH, Liang, MH. 'The outcome of decompressive laminectomy for degenerative lumbar stenosis.' J Bone Joint Surg 1991; 73A: 809-16.
  30. Stucki, G, Liang, MH, Lipson, SJ, Fossel, AH, Katz, JN. 'Contribution of neruomuscular impairment to physical functional status in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis.' J Rheumatol 1994; 21: 1338-43.
  31. Johnsson, KE Rosen, I, Uden, A. 'The natural course of lumbar spinal stenosis.' Clin Orthop 1992; 279:82-6.
  32. Herno, A, Airaksinen, O, Saari, T. 'Long-term results of surgical treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis.' Spine 1993; 18:1471-4.
  33. Larequi-Lauber, T, Vader, JP, Burnand, B, Brook, RH, Kosecoff, J, et al. 'Appropriateness of indications for surgery of lumbar disc hernia and spinal stenosis.' Spine 1997; 22:203-9.
  34. Van Akkerveeken, P. 'Classification and treatment of spinal stenosis.' In: Wiesel, SW, Weinstein, JN, Herkowitz, H, Dvorak, J, Bell, G, editors. 'The lumbar spine. Philadelphia (PA): W.B. Saunders; 1996. P. 724-36.
  35. Katz, JN, Dalgas, M, stucki, G, Lipson, SG. 'Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. Diagnostic value of the history and physical examination. Arthritis Rheum 1995; 38: 1236-41.
  36. Kirkaldy-Willis, WH. 'Managing low back pain.' New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1983.
  37. McNiell, TW. 'Decompressive Laminectomy'. In: Andersson, GBJ, McNeill, TW, editors 'Lumbar Spinal Stenosis' 1991, PP 339.
  38. Deyo, RA, Ciol, mA, Cherkin, DC, Loeser, JD, Bigos, S. 'Lumbar spinal fusion: A cohort study of complications, reoperations, and resource use in the Medicare population.' Spine 1993; 18: 1463-70.
  39. Deyo, RA, Cherkin, DC, Loeser, JD, Bigos, SJ, Ciol, MA. 'Morbidity and mortality in association with operations on the lumbar spine." J Bone Joint Surg 1992; 74A:536-43.
  40. Hu, RW, Jaglal, S, Axcell, T, Anderson, G. 'A Population-Based Study of Reoperations After Back Surgery.' Spine 1997; 17: 2265-71.

For additional references, the results of a literature search dated 9/10/2002 can be downloaded here, as a PDF 

                                                                    

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